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Progress in research on ribonuclease

2019-03-07 来源:亚科官网

 The full name of Ribonuclease (RNase) is a nucleoside-α-oligonucleotide transferase, a type of nuclease hydrolyzing enzyme widely found in animals and plants. The main physiological function of ribonuclease is to control the type and quantity distribution of RNA in cells. In addition to the processes involved in the cleavage, modification and degradation of ribonucleic acid, it also has self-incompatibility and organogenesis with certain plants. The host's defense mechanism, control of tumor angiogenesis, killing of tumor cells and inhibition of viral replication.

Ribonuclease family member

1. Ribonuclease A

Ribonuclease A (RNaseA, EC belongs to the endonuclease and is a small monomeric enzyme. It is abundant in the pancreas of mammals such as ruminants, marsupials, dentless animals and rodents. Gao is one of the first natural enzymes to be studied.

2. Ribonuclease B

Ribonuclease B (RNaseB) is a glycoprotein that is a saccharide derivative of RNaseA with a molecular weight of 14.70 kD ± 0.3 kD. RNaseB is similar in structure to RNaseA protein, except that there is one sugar chain GlcNAc2Man5-9 at Asn34 of RNaseB. The sugar chain of RNaseB is treated with glycosidase to shorten it to form GlcNAc-RNase and (GlcNAc)2Man3-RNase, or it is added by adding Bantoxin A.

3. Ribonuclease C

RNaseC is a glycoprotein, a monomeric enzyme, has a peptide chain, contains 126 amino acids, contains 33% of carbohydrates, has 1 lysine at the N-terminus, and C-terminal. Contains 1 threonine with a molecular weight of 150.0 kD and a pH of 6.5.

4. Ribonuclease H

RNaseH is an endonuclease. Stein (1970) was first discovered in bovine thymus. It was later found that RNaseH is found in almost all organisms from virus to human. The enzyme can be divided into two groups: Group 1 represents the cell RNaseH, an enzyme encoding bacteria and eukaryote; Group 2 consists of RNaseH, derived from retroviruses and phage. At present, many scholars have conducted extensive and in-depth research on it.

5. S-RNase

S-RNase is a protein isolated from plants and is the product of the multiple allele S-gene. In recent years, it has been found that RNase plays an increasingly important role in plant biology. It is involved in RNA metabolism, self-incompatibility, phosphorus reuse, xylem formation, adaptation to external coercion and defense against pathogens. And so on. Domestic and foreign scholars have conducted extensive and in-depth research on S-RNase.

6. ribonuclease P

RNaseP is a ribonucleoprotein endonuclease that is rich in RNaseP in both bacteria and eukaryotes.

Since the ribonuclease family exhibits unique biological functions, it is possible to become a pharmaceutical protein that inhibits or kills cancer cells. Among them, the activity of degrading RNA possessed by the RNase family is one of the important reasons for its antiviral or anticancer effects. When they are genetically engineered or combined with specific antibodies and receptors to form targeted immunotoxins, they can play an important role in the treatment of some major diseases such as cancer, AIDS, etc.

Related links: Ribonuclease

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