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What is the synthesis and use of glycine?

2019-04-03 来源:亚科官网
 
Glycine has a molecular formula of C2H5NO2, is soluble in water, insoluble in alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and has a solubility of only 0.06 g in ethanol. Glycine is a non-toxic, odorless, sweet white crystalline powder with a sweetness of 0.8 times that of sucrose.
Synthesis of glycine
The in vivo synthesis pathway of glycine mainly includes three: (1) synthesis by serine under the catalysis of methyltransferase; (2) synthesis by choline in the process of producing sarcosine; (3) synthesized by threonine. Recent studies have found that glyoxylic acid and hydroxyproline may also be precursors for the synthesis of glycine in animals.
The in vitro synthesis process of glycine mainly includes chloroacetic acid ammoniation method and Stryker method. At present, the foreign countries mainly adopt the Ster and Leike processes. However, this method does not use this method in China because it requires the use of cyanide, a highly toxic chemical material. The domestic use mainly chloroacetic acid ammoniation method, this method is based on chloroacetic acid, ammonia, urotropine, methanol as raw material, mild reaction conditions, simple synthesis process, low equipment requirements, easy operation, basically no pollution, product yield The theoretical value is high and the process technology is mature, so it is widely used in China.
Use of glycine
1. food
  • Used as a biochemical reagent for pharmaceuticals, feeds and food additives, and as a non-toxic decarburizer for the nitrogen fertilizer industry;
  •  Nutritional supplements. Mainly used for seasoning and other aspects;
  • It has a certain inhibitory effect on the reproduction of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Therefore, it can be used as a preservative for surimi products, peanut butter, etc., in an amount of 1% to 2%;
  • Antioxidant effect (using metal chelation) added to cream, cheese, margarine can extend the storage period by 3 to 4 times;
  •  In order to stabilize the lard in the baked food, glucose 2.5% and glycine 0.5% may be added;
  • Adding 0.1% to 0.5% to the wheat flour for quick-cooking noodles, and at the same time, it can be used for seasoning;
  •  It can buffer the taste of salt and vinegar, and the added amount is 0.3%-0.7% for salted products and 0.05%-0.5% for pickled products;
  •  According to China's GB 2760-96 regulations it can be used as a spice.
2. medicine
  • Used as a medicine for the study of amino acid metabolism in medical microbiology and biochemistry;
  •  It is used as a synthetic raw material for chlortetracycline buffer, anti-Parkinson's disease drug L-dopa, vitamin B6 and threonine;
  • Treatment of myasthenia gravis and progressive muscle atrophy;
  • Treatment of hyperacidity, chronic enteritis (usually combined with antacids);
  •  Used in combination with aspirin to reduce its irritation to the stomach;
  • Treating children with hyperprolineemia;
  • As a nitrogen source for generating non-essential amino acids, it is added to a mixed amino acid injection.
3. Agriculture
  • Mainly used as feed for poultry, livestock and poultry, especially pets, to add amino acid additives and attractants. Used as a hydrolyzed protein additive as a synergist for hydrolyzed proteins;
  • The glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride, which is an intermediate for the synthesis of pyrethroid insecticides in the production of pesticides, can also synthesize the fungicide, iprodione, and the herbicide solid glyphosate.
4. Industry
  •  Electroplating solution additive;
  •  Used in the pharmaceutical industry, biochemical testing and organic synthesis;
  •  Used as a raw material for cephalosporin, a thiamphenicol intermediate, a synthetic imidazole acetic acid intermediate, etc.;
  • Used as a raw material for cosmetics.
5. reagents
  •  For polypeptide synthesis, used as an amino acid protection monomer;
  •  For the preparation of tissue culture medium, inspection of copper, gold and silver;
  • Since glycine is a zwitterion having an amino group and a carboxyl group, it has a strong buffering property and is often used as a formulation buffer;
  •  Complexometric titration indicator, solvent.
Related links: glycine
edited by Suzhou Yacoo Science Co., Ltd.