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Six major research progresses of type 2 diabetes in 2017

2017-12-18 来源:亚科官网
18 December 2017
Six major research progresses of type 2 diabetes in 2017
  Diabetes is an irreversible chronic disease. According to the latest data, the number of people with type 2 diabetes in 2017 has reached 425 million in 2017. To thoroughly tackle diabetes, scientists conducted a serious of study. Let's look at some of the major advances made in 2017 in type II diabetes.
Low-calorie diet can reverse diabetes?
  Scientists investigated the effects of very low-calorie diet in type 2 diabetic rodent models and found that very low calorie diets can also reverse diabetes quickly and they identified three main mechanisms involved: (1) reducing the conversion of lactate and amino acids to glucose; (2) reducing the rate of liver glycogen conversion to glucose; (3) decreasing the fat content, which in turn improves the liver's response to insulin. (doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2017.10.004)
Artificial β cells, control blood sugar for 5 days through single injection
  Dr. Gu's team developed an artificial β cell that automatically releases insulin into the bloodstream at elevated blood glucose levels and is expected to overcome the bottlenecks of existing β cell engraftment (expensive, donor cell deficiencies and need immunosuppressive drugs). In both petri dish-test and beta-cell-free diabetic mice, artificial beta cells showed a rapid response to excess glucose levels, allowing mice to recover from hyperglycemia to normal glucose levels within an hour. After five days, mice maintained normal blood glucose levels. (doi:10.1038/nchembio.2511)
Gene therapy for type 2 diabetes and obesity
  Researchers have validated a new form of gene therapy in mice to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity by transplanting genetically engineered skin. Skin progenitor cells are well suited for gene therapy: the human skin is the largest and most accessible organ in the body; it is easy to monitor; the grafted skin can be quickly removed if necessary; the skin graft is relatively safe, minimally invasive, and inexpensive. This skin transplant-based gene therapy may be able to treat a variety of human diseases. (doi:10.1016/j.stem.2017.06.016)
Improved GLP-1 to delay drug breakdown
  GLP-1 receptor agonists promote the insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells in a glucose concentration-dependent manner, but with a very short half-life. Researchers have developed a new approach that allows GLP-1 to bind to a biopolymer molecule, a thermosensitive elastase, and accumulate subcutaneously through the skin. Under body temperature, it becomes a gelatinous substance that slowly releases the drug and thus controls blood sugar levels. However, at present, this new method has only been tried in animal experiments. Further research is needed on how to apply it to humans. (doi:10.1038/s41551-017-0078)
The full-length human glucagon receptor protein structure was first resolved
  There is a protein on the cell surface—GPCR, plays a crucial role in cell signaling. Glucagon receptors are type B GPCRs and are important targets for anti-type 2 diabetes drugs. To date, there is no available drug since the lack of their structural information. Due to the difficulty of obtaining a stable, intact GPCR protein, its full-length structure has not been resolved. For the first time, researchers at the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, measured the three-dimensional structure of the full-length glucagon receptor protein at a higher resolution. On this basis, a number of drug targeted GPCRs can be developed, including new diabetes drugs. (doi:10.1038/nature22363)
A series of compounds that treat type 2 diabetes
  A team of scientists from the Scripps Research Institute, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School and Yale University identified a new set of compounds, sr-18292, whose modified protein is called PGC-1α. This series of compounds can reduce the liver's glucose production, reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models, improve insulin sensitivity and improve blood sugar balance. (doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.03.001)
  At present, the clinically used diabetes drugs mainly include α-glucosidase inhibitors, sulfonylureas, biguanides, glinides, and new drugs acting on the targets of DPP-4, GLP-1 and SGLT-2. We hope that more and more convenient and effective treatment of type 2 diabetes can be developed to improve the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes and even achieve the purpose of curing.
Edited by Suzhou Yacoo Science Co., Ltd.